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Assembly Magazine "Endless Benefits" The benefits of implementing electronic work instructions include cost savings, productivity enhancement, and error proofing. In order to address the key aspects in the research, certain categories of questions should be posed. Neuman proposes that the survey should include a list of category questions that relate to attitudes, beliefs or opinions, behaviour, characteristics, expectations, self-classification and knowledge.
The researchers grouped these questions in Parts C, D, E and F of the questionnaire according to the identified themes. Sampling is an integral part in the survey approach Cohen et al. Funds available for collecting data, time available for the data collection and access to the respondents are aspects that the researchers have to take into consideration at the onset of the research before samples of participants are selected Cohen et al. The five key factors that influence sampling are: 1 sample size, 2 representation and restrictions of the sample, 3 means of contact with the sample, 4 sample selection strategy and 5 the research methodology.
As soon as these aspects have been addressed, the sample selection can be performed. The target population is a specified large group of many subjects from which a researcher draws a sample Neuman, A sample is a set of units a researcher chooses from the large group and generalises to a particular population Neuman, Sample selection is a critical component of research which is guided by the type of analysis being performed. Sampling in quantitative research is when a researcher selects units and regards them as representative of the total population.
The features of the sample should emphasise key elements in a complex social world in order to give clarity about and insight and understanding into the concerns in the social world Neuman, It is therefore important that the researchers make sampling decisions during the initial planning of the research project Cohen et al. The mathematics teachers of the WCED were therefore the target population for this study. The researchers considered five key factors when selecting the sample: 1 the sample size, 2 the symbolisation and limitation of the sample, 3 access to the sample, 4 the use of a sample strategy and 5 the conduct of research.
There is no clear-cut method to select an appropriate sample Neuman, It is an intricate process which depends on: 1 the aim of the study, 2 the characteristics of the population under study, 3 the level of accuracy needed from the data, 4 the response rate estimated from the data collection, 5 the number of variables included in the study and 6 the research methodology used for the study Cohen et al. For quantitative research a large sample is beneficial as larger samples contribute towards increased reliability and the use of sophisticated statistical procedures demands a large number of observations.
The researchers applied the eight stages of planning a sample strategy according to Cohen et al. Table 3 provides a summary of the planning stages of the sample selection procedure of this research. The WCED is divided into eight education districts: four rural districts, which correspond to one or more municipalities, and four urban or metro districts located within the City of Cape Town. Each educational management district has a district director, a circuit team with a circuit team manager who coordinates the tasks of the curriculum advisors, Special Needs Education professionals, Institutional Management and Governance planning and a School Governance and Management team WCED, Babbie and McMillan and Schumacher propose that a researcher formulate questions and constructs to: 1 operationalise the variables of the research, 2 collect data for analysis and interpretation, 3 ensure maximum response and 4 extract data for analysis to address the research problem.
This formulation procedure should take into account:. Part A requested personal information of the respondents: 1 gender, 2 age, 3 home language, 4 language of instruction, 5 years of teaching experience in the various grades, 6 highest qualification or highest professional qualification and 7 subject specialisation.
Part B comprised demographical information relating to the: 1 school district, 2 nearest town or city, 3 geographical location rural or urban area , 4 quintile of the school, 5 number of mathematics classes per grade, 6 number of mathematics classes teachers teach, 7 availability of computers for teaching, learning and administration and 8 access to the Internet for administration, teaching and learning. For some questions, the respondents had to select the appropriate option or fill in the applicable response. Parts C—F comprised complex questions on attitudes, attributes, opportunities, self-classification and knowledge relating to the research.
Part G relates to PD models. The selected quotations from the qualitative analysis illustrate the underlying constructs. Table 5 provides an example of the compilation of the questions and illustrates the relationship between the literature constructs as derived from the literature review and the individual questions. Aspects relating to the school environment were grouped as one part of the questionnaire with various sub-questions Part D.
The questions relate to aspects regarding the extent to which mathematics teachers: 1 create a classroom environment where they utilise the Internet and ICT applications, 2 download resources, 3 develop lessons with the help of ICT, 4 stimulate their learners to be creative, 5 use the vast array of resources to improve their academic performance, 6 achieve the assessment standards and 7 have a positive attitude towards the use of ICT for teaching and learning of mathematics.
In Part F, the researchers aimed to: 1 confront issues about PD of mathematics teachers, 2 gain insight into the opinions of mathematics teachers on future PD opportunities, 3 learn about the context in which PD activities should occur and 4 assess the modes in which PD should take place. The final part of the questionnaire Part G included four PD models conceptualised using the multiple PD models and frameworks identified in the literature review.
The researchers adapted a variety of PD models, tested in other education systems across the world by the expert researchers in this particular field, to suit the background and context of South African schools. The four models included the best practices for PD that could work in the South African context. The data collection of a survey can be conducted via a postal interviews, personal interview, telephone, and Internet-based surveys.
Each of these strategies has its own strengths and weaknesses Cohen et al. The researchers administered the questionnaire by personally delivering it to respondents and again collecting it from their individual sampled schools. The validation of the questionnaire before distribution to the participants is critical. Subsequently the researchers piloted the questionnaire with: 1 two mathematics teachers from a quintile 1 school, 2 two mathematics teachers from a quintile 3 school and 3 one mathematics teacher from a quintile 5 school.
This contributed towards the validity and reliability of the questions and ensured the comprehensiveness of the questionnaire Cohen et al. Before data collection the researchers obtained ethical clearance from the university's ethics committee and permission from the WCED to distribute the questionnaire in the eight education districts.
Ethical clearance ensures that the respondents are protected from harm and that the researcher ensures the respondents of confidentiality, anonymity and the non-traceability of their participation in the research. The researchers planned the data collection in accordance with the schedule of the district offices and contacted the relevant parties subject advisors, schools via email and followed up by telephone.
The first author confirmed the appointments for the data collection sessions and visits to schools telephonically and travelled in 37 days a total of km in order to collect the data. This was a considerable task in terms of man-hours and cost. The researchers collected data from farm, semi-urban, urban, former Model C and independent schools across the districts. Various statistical procedures descriptive statistics, factor analysis and structural equation modelling were followed to analyse the collected data.
The biographical information was presented with frequencies and percentages. Table 6 outlines the summary of the biographical information.
The researchers applied construct validity through factor analysis to group the items of the questionnaire meaningfully. Using construct validity validates the extent to which the questionnaire used in this research for data collection corresponds with the theoretical context Cohen et al.
After factor analysis had been conducted on Parts C—F, the researchers performed a reliability test using Cronbach's alpha, applying an acceptable reliability level of 0. This study used representative reliability: 1 to make ensure that the data and findings were suitable, predictable, reliable and replicable and 2 to minimise the external sources of variation in the data excluding acute answers from the data analysis Cohen et al. For the alpha coefficient the following categories applied to this factor analysis:. The questionnaire included subscales; therefore the reliability of each set of factors was calculated individually.
The factors were extracted according to Kaiser's criteria and 10 of the 11 extracted factors had a reliability level higher than 0. Table 7 illustrates the pattern matrix of the correlation coefficient between the factors in Parts C—F.
Variables with factor loadings of 0. Each factor was scrutinised, evaluated and named according to a theme best suited to the factor. The Barlett's test of sphericity showed a significance p of less than 0. Four factors were extracted with the factor analysis. The factors showed a high reliability of 0.
The four factors were named: responsibility of DBE Factor 1 , responsibility of management Factor 2 , responsibility of teaching and learning Factor 3 and policy initiatives Factor 4. The mean of 3. Mathematics teachers did not all regard ICT integration to be the responsibility of management mean 2. Some mathematics teachers were of the opinion that the school management team should have an ICT strategic plan for: 1 providing access to ICT tools for teaching and learning, 2 creating a timetable for admission to ICT facilities and 3 affording time to prepare ICT integration lessons.
Two factors were extracted with a KMO measure of 0. The factors showed a marginal reliability of 0.
A mean of 3. They believe that if they understand ICT, they can 1 use it in their daily lives, 2 employ it in their work environment and 3 identify when ICT can complement other methods to achieve the learning outcomes for mathematics. The mean of 2. Two factors were extracted with the KMO measure of 0.
Mathematics teachers should have Internet access so that they can create a network with other mathematics teachers to discuss their uncertainties and share their best practices. A mean of 2. Three factors were extracted with the KMO measure of 0. The factors showed a high reliability: of 0. Means of 3. Mathematics teachers expect the DBE, provincial departments and schools to work together to develop an ICT strategic plan, which includes a PD model that is versatile, so that they can develop at their own pace, perceptive to address subject-specialised training and insightful to their developmental needs Table 7.
The aim of the structural equation model was to determine whether there were statistically significant relationships between the four themes.
The standardised regression weight for governance and school environment was 0. The standardised regression coefficients indicated that when correlations between variables were taken into account, governance had a positive influence on school environment and ODL, and school environment had a positive influence on ODL and PD.
The comparative fit index CFI , also known as the Bentler Comparative fit statistic, compares the fit of a target model to the fit of an independent model. The goodness-of-fit measures for the model comprised:. Root mean square error of approximation measures the differences in the observed values in the model. A value of 0. The structural equation model illustrates the validation of how the four themes were supportive towards achieving the object of the research.
The first author wrote a full report on the findings from the statistical analysis with clear guidelines for the PD of mathematics teachers for the pedagogical use of ICT in ODL.
Additionally the research: 1 developed a model for identity essentials for PD for mathematics teachers in South Africa and 2 compiled strategies on how to conduct systematic literature and quantise literature data through exploratory factor analysis. The researchers are in the process of: 1 distributing the questionnaire in Finland to do a comparison between PD needs of mathematics teachers in the two contexts and 2 constructing national guidelines for PD for ICT integration.
With the 14 stages of questionnaire development, the research developed, validated and standardised an instrument for PD of mathematics teachers for the pedagogical use of ICT, which 1 enables each context to assess the PD requirements, 2 gives access to the developmental needs of mathematics teachers to allow for the creation of context-specific PD programmes and 3 can consequently be used by other researchers to compare the contexts of other South African provinces, as well as to explore and describe PD needs in diverse contexts.