Even if these young people were to benefit from a typical summer school every year for the next five years, they would still be about nine months behind with their reading at age Schools therefore need to plan a more intensive and more sustained approach to tackling the literacy difficulties of their struggling readers at the transition between primary and secondary school. Other important findings relate to the range of approaches to support reading and they types of reading support that research indicates are likely to be beneficial. Both one-to-one and small-group tuition can help pupils catch up.
One-to-one teaching has a slightly higher average impact and a more secure evidence base, but in some cases small group tuition with a skilled teacher can be as effective. Given its lower cost, schools should consider trialling small group tuition as a first option, before moving to one-to-one tuition if small groups are ineffective.
Recent EEF findings indicate that effective deployment of teaching assistants who are trained in specific catch-up approaches can be successful in supporting improvement in reading for those who are behind. One of the key debates in reading is about the value of phonics.
However we think that on average, reading comprehension approaches will be more effective for low-attaining older readers. This is for two reasons.
Mastering phonics is necessary for reading, especially decoding and basic reading fluency — but it is not enough to ensure children can actually read, in the full sense of the word. Learners must also develop understanding of the meaning of a range of different texts in different areas of the curriculum.
Compare the relative difficulty of interpreting a poem in English and deciphering a description of how plants derive energy from the sun in biology. Additionally, children who have not yet succeeded in learning to read using phonics previously will benefit from approaches that place a greater emphasis on meaning and context. Diagnosis is the key here: if learners are not making progress, we must find out why not.
If they still have difficulties with word-level fluency, then additional support with phonics may still help. But in practice, a mixed approach is probably beneficial for most pupils, targeted according to need. If phonics is used with older children, age-appropriate materials delivered by trained professionals appear to be most effective. To meet the goals of early childhood intervention, services are personalized for the child and family as a unit and in their specific social and cultural context.
A family approach builds on the assumption that developmental problems must be addressed in the environmental context of the child.
A basic premise is that the unique and complex needs of each child and family are best met by an interdisciplinary approach in collaboration with the family. A systems approach recognizes that the family and child are influenced by the world of work, the preschool , available services for health, and other major social systems. On the macro level, early childhood intervention is influenced by broader factors of laws, culture , attitudes, values, geography, and economy.
This can negatively impact the well-being of the family as well as the development of the child. Despite the marked heterogeneity of children, families, and service models that characterizes the early childhood field, the central importance of early relationships is universally acknowledged across systems. Mary Beth Bruder. Beginning literacy with language: Young children learning at home and school. While the most consistent findings indicated the value of centre-based programmes for preschool-age children in the cognitive domain, these effects tend to be modest and to fade over time. It is the committee's task to conduct a formal research synthesis based on a systematic review of the empirical literature. Secure attachments and comfortable social interactions were identified as both an essential base and an ongoing context in which young children learn about how their actions elicit responses from others, how to explore their environment with confidence, and how to experience and deal constructively with a broad range of thoughts and feelings.
Developmental science has had a major influence on the philosophy and practices of early childhood intervention. A fundamental assumption in child development literature is that the child is seen as active in constructing his or her world and that development occurs through the ongoing transactions over time between the child and the social and physical environment.
As research on early childhood intervention continued to evolve, a distinction was made between first- and second-generation research. Second-generation research addresses issues that are of value in the daily activities of children and families and that deal with assessment of intervention services and goals.
Early childhood intervention was established in the United States and in some countries in Europe in the s. Since then, interest in early childhood intervention has increased worldwide. Researchers, clinicians, parents, program developers, and policy makers from many countries contribute to the rapidly expanding knowledge base of early childhood intervention. The International Society for Early Intervention ISEI provides a forum for professionals to communicate about advances in the field of early intervention.
In Europe, Eurlyaid European Association on Early Childhood Intervention , a working party of professionals and representatives of parent associations, is involved in promoting early intervention for children who are at risk of or are affected by developmental disabilities.
Early childhood intervention. Info Print Print.
Table Of Contents. Submit Feedback. Thank you for your feedback. Introduction Characteristics of early intervention programs Approaches in early childhood intervention Research influences International reach. See Article History. Characteristics of early intervention programs The age of entry into early childhood intervention services varies from country to country. Start your free trial today for unlimited access to Britannica.
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